The safe use of horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boilers should first ensure that the design, manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, modification, and inspection of the boiler conform to the "Steam Boiler Safety Technical Supervision Regulations" and "Hot Fire Boiler Safety Technical Supervision Regulations" "Provisions. After the installation of the boiler is completed, the boiler post safety operation regulations must be formulated, and the relevant requirements on the equipment and personnel must be formulated to ensure the safe operation of the boiler. The specific requirements are as follows:
(1) Horizontal (condensed) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler furnace personnel and water treatment personnel must pass the training and assessment, and only hold the operation certificate issued by the equipment registration agency to operate.
(2) Newly installed horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boilers must be informed and qualified for installation quality supervision before being put into operation.
(3) Horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boilers in use must be operated within the period of validity of regular inspections.
(4) Horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boilers must have water treatment facilities, and the water quality must comply with GB1576-2001 "Water Quality of Industrial Boilers" and GB / T12145-1999 "Water Quality of Thermal Power Units and Steam Power Equipment" Claim.
(5) The safety accessories of horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boilers must be regularly verified (safety valves should be verified at least once a year and pressure gauges should be verified at least every six months), and the safety accessories must be within the validity period of the verification . To use the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler correctly and safely, the boiler room must be strictly managed. The specific requirements are:
(1) The boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler shall be equipped with fire extinguishing equipment, fire water supply equipment and fire extinguishing system as required.
(2) The boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler should generally be set up separately, and should not be set up in a place with dense staff. The boiler room shall be a building with Class I or Class II fire resistance, and a boiler room with no coal as fuel and a total rated evaporation capacity not exceeding 4 tons per hour may be used as a building with Class III fire resistance.
(3) The boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler should be prohibited from stacking combustible materials. The power lines should be wired with metal sleeves or cables. They cannot be laid along the surface of the heat carrier or passed under the coal yard. .
(4) The fire room between the boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler and the surrounding flammable and dangerous buildings, as well as the boiler room and the coal pile, the boiler room and the oil (gas) tank shall comply with the relevant regulations , The boiler room should choose the downwind or crosswind direction of the main building.
(5) For the boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler, a light roof generally not more than 120 kg per square meter should be used as the pressure relief area. The pressure regulating room adjacent to the boiler room shall be separated by a firewall, and its doors and windows shall be opened outwards, and shall not directly lead to the boiler room. When the boiler room is arranged in multiple layers, there should be at least one exit on each side of each floor, and there should be a safe evacuation stairway directly to the operating point of each floor. All entrances and passages of the boiler room should be kept unobstructed.
(6) The boiler room of the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler shall record the daily operation of the boiler and auxiliary equipment, which generally includes the record of the operation of the boiler and auxiliary equipment, the maintenance and maintenance records of the boiler, the operation of the water treatment equipment and Water quality test records, handover class records. Accident records. When the horizontal (condensing) fuel oil (gas) steam boiler is in operation, its index changes frequently. The evaporation of the boiler must change with the change of the load to adapt to the requirements of the load. Therefore, during the operation of the boiler, a series of adjustments must be made to it, such as corresponding changes in the amount of fuel, air, and water supply, so that the evaporation of the boiler can be adapted to the external load.
(1) Adjustment of water level
The water level of the boiler is an important indicator to ensure normal steam supply and safe operation. Therefore, during the operation of the boiler, the operator should continuously monitor the water level of the boiler through the water level meter. For boilers with variable load, the change in water level is mainly caused by the load change. The load change causes the evaporation amount to change. To maintain the normal water level of the boiler, the feed water amount must be adjusted in time to adapt to the change in evaporation amount. For example, if the load increases, the amount of evaporation increases accordingly. If the amount of feed water does not increase correspondingly with the amount of evaporation, the water level will decrease. Therefore, the change of water level depends largely on the relationship between the water supply, evaporation and load. In addition, sudden changes in boiler load can also cause false water levels to appear.
(2) Adjustment of steam pressure
During the operation of the boiler, the boiler operator should increase or decrease the fuel volume, air volume, and water supply volume accordingly to change the boiler's evaporation volume, so that the steam pressure remains relatively stable. When the boiler load is reduced and the steam pressure is increased, if the water level is low at this time, the inlet water can be appropriately increased to make the steam pressure no longer rise, and then the fuel and air volume are reduced as appropriate, the combustion is reduced, the evaporation is reduced, and the steam pressure is maintained Normal; if the water level is also high when the steam pressure rises, the fuel and air volume should be reduced first, and the combustion should be reduced. At the same time, the water supply should be appropriately reduced or the water supply should be suspended. After the steam pressure and water level return to normal, adjust the combustion and water supply according to the load. The steam pressure adjustment is mainly to adjust the combustion conditions, and the key to the combustion adjustment is to reasonably control the fuel volume and air volume. Different combustion equipment has different adjustment methods for combustion. Operators should be proficient in adjusting methods. When the boiler load changes, the steam pressure should be restored to normal as soon as possible.
(3) Adjustment of steam temperature
The steam temperature change is caused by two factors on the steam side and the flue gas side, so the adjustment of the steam temperature should be done from these two aspects. First, adjust the steam temperature from the steam side. Starting from the steam side to adjust the steam temperature is to maintain the rated steam temperature by changing the heat absorption on the steam side. At present, most desuperheaters are used to adjust the steam temperature. The desuperheater is generally placed between the high-temperature section superheater and the low-temperature section superheater. Second, adjust the steam temperature from the flue gas side. Adjusting the superheated steam temperature from the flue gas side is to change the heat absorption of the heated surface of the superheater, usually by changing the amount of flue gas flowing through the heater and the flue gas temperature.